Novel human polysaccharide adjuvants with dual Th1 and Th2 potentiating activity. Petrovsky N. Vaccine. 2006 Apr 12;24 Suppl 2:S2-26-9. Review. PMID: 16823913 Free full text Related citations

Information technologies for vaccine research. Brusic V, August JT, Petrovsky N. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2005 Jun;4(3):407-17. Review. PMID: 16026252  Related citations



An inactivated Vero cell-grown Japanese encephalitis vaccine formulated with Advax, a novel inulin-based adjuvant, induces protective neutralizing antibody against homologous and heterologous flaviviruses. Lobigs M, Pavy M, Hall RA, Lobigs P, Cooper P, Komiya T, Toriniwa H, Petrovsky N. J Gen Virol. 2010 Jun;91(Pt 6):1407-17. Epub 2010 Feb 3.PMID:20130134  Free full text Related citations

Challenges in improving influenza vaccine protection in the elderly. Petrovsky N, Ross TM. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011 Jan;10(1):7-11. PMID: 21162614 Free ArticleInduction of mucosal and systemic antibody and T-cell responses following prime-boost immunization with novel adjuvanted human immunodeficiency virus-1-vaccine formulations. Cristillo AD, Ferrari MG, Hudacik L, Lewis B, Galmin L, Bowen B, Thompson D, Petrovsky N, Markham P, Pal R. J Gen Virol. 2011 Jan;92(Pt 1):128-40. PMID: 21169215 Related citations

AFCo1, a meningococcal B-derived cochleate adjuvant, strongly enhances antibody and T-cell immunity against Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 4 and 5. Bracho G, Zayas C, Wang L, Coppel R, Pérez O, Petrovsky N. Malar J. 2009 Feb 27;8:35. PMID: 19250541 Free PMC Article

Cooper P, Barclay T, Ginic-Markovic M, Petrovsky N. Gamma ray sterilization of delta inulin adjuvant particles (Advax) makes minor, partly reversible structural changes without affecting adjuvant activity. Vaccine 2013. Jan 23;32(5):552-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.11.105. Epub 2013 Dec 14. PMID: 24342245

Cooper P, Barclay T, Ginic-Markovic M, Gerson A, Petrovsky N. Inulin isoforms differ by repeated additions of one crystal unit cell. Carbohydrate Polymers 2014; Mar 15;103:392-7. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.12.066. Epub 2013 Dec 31. PMID: 24528745

Feinen B, Petrovsky N, Verma A, Merkel TJ. Advax-adjuvanted Recombinant Protective Antigen Provides Protection Against Inhalational Anthrax That is Further Enhanced by Addition of Murabutide Adjuvant. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014 Apr;21(4):580-6. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00019-14. Epub 2014 Feb 19. PMID: 24554695

Capitani M, Saade F, Havas KM, Angeletti M, Concetti F, Agas D, Sabbieti MG, Concetti A, Venanzi FM, Petrovsky N. Plasmids Encoding Protein Aggregation Domains act as Molecular Adjuvants for DNA Vaccines. Curr Gene Ther. 2014;14(3):161-9. PMID: 24828254

Rajapaksha H, Petrovsky N. In Silico Structural Homology Modelling and Docking for Assessment of Pandemic Potential of a Novel H7N9 Influenza Virus and Its Ability to Be Neutralized by Existing Anti-Hemagglutinin Antibodies. PLoS One. 2014 Jul 21;9(7):e102618. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102618. PMID: 25047593

Honda-Okubo Y, Kolpe A, Li L, Petrovsky N. A single immunization with inactivated H1N1 influenza vaccine formulated with delta inulin adjuvant (Advax™) overcomes pregnancy-associated immune suppression and enhances passive neonatal protection. Vaccine. 2014 Aug 6;32(36):4651-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.06.057. Epub 2014 Jun 21. PMID: 24958701

Gordon D, Kelley P, Heinzel S, Cooper P, Petrovsky N. Immunogenicity and safety of Advax™, a novel polysaccharide adjuvant based on delta inulin, when formulated with hepatitis B surface antigen: A randomized controlled Phase 1 study. Vaccine. 2014 Nov 12;32(48):6469-77. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.09.034. PMID:25267153

Cooper P, Rajapaksha H, Barclay T, Ginic-Markovic M, Gerson A, Petrovsky N. Inulin crystal initiation via a glucose-fructose cross-link of adjacent polymer chains: atomic force microscopy and static molecular modelling. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2015 Mar 6;117:964-72. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.10.022. Epub 2014 Oct 23, PMID: 25498723

Murugappan S, Frijlink HW, Petrovsky N, Hinrichs WL. Enhanced Pulmonary Immunization with Aerosolized Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Containing Delta Inulin Adjuvant. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2014 Oct 20;66C:118-122. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2014.10.008. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25459531

Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Prow NA, Wang W, Tan CS, Coyle M, Douma A, Hobson-Peters J, Kidd L, Hall RA, Petrovsky N. Safety and immunogenicity of a delta inulin adjuvanted inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine in pregnant mares and foals. Veterinary Research, 2014 Dec 17;45(1):130. PMID: 25516480

Honda-Okubo Y, Barnard D, Ong CH, Peng BH, Tseng CT, Petrovsky N. SARS-CoV vaccines formulated with delta inulin adjuvants provide enhanced virus protection while ameliorating lung eosinophilic immunopathology. J Virol. 2014 Dec 17. pii: JVI.02980-14. PMID: 25520500

Rodriguez-Del Rio E, Marradi M, Calderon-Gonzalez R, Frande-Cabanes E, Penadés S, Petrovsky N, Alvarez-Dominguez C. A gold glyco-nanoparticle carrying a Listeriolysin O peptide and formulated with Advax™ delta inulin adjuvant induces robust T-cell protection against listeria infection. Vaccine. 2015 Mar 17;33(12):1465-73. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.01.062. Epub 2015 Feb 7. PMID: 25659269

Calderon-Gonzalez R, Tobes R, Pareja E, Frande-Cabanes E, Petrovsky N, Alvarez-Dominguez C. Identification and characterisation of T-cell epitopes for incorporation into dendritic cell-delivered listeria vaccines. J Immunol Methods. 2015 May 29. pii: S0022-1759(15)30002-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jim.2015.05.009. PMID:26031451

Honda Y, Ong CH, Petrovsky N. Advax Delta Inulin Adjuvant Overcomes Immune Immaturity In Neonatal Mice Thereby Allowing Single-Dose Influenza Vaccine Protection. Vaccine. 2015 Jul 29. pii: S0264-410X(15)01012-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.07.051. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26232344

Li L, Honda Y, Li C, Petrovsky N. Delta inulin adjuvant enhances plasmablast generation, expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase and B-cell affinity maturation in human subjects receiving seasonal influenza vaccine. PLOSOne, 2015 Jul 15;10(7):e0132003. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132003. eCollection 2015.PMID 26177480


Barclay T, Rajapaksha H, Thilagam A, Qian G, Ginic-Markovic M, Cooper P, Gerson A, Petrovsky N. Physical characterization and in silico modeling of inulin polymer conformation during vaccine adjuvant particle formation. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2016 Jun 5;143:108-15. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.01.062. Epub 2016 Jan 29. PMID: 27083349

McPherson C, Chubet R, Holtz K, Honda-Okubo Y, Barnard D, Cox M, Petrovsky N. Development of a SARS Coronavirus Vaccine from Recombinant Spike Protein Plus Delta Inulin Adjuvant. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1403:269-84. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3387-7_14. PMID: 27076136

Gordon DL, Sajkov D, Honda-Okubo Y, Wilks SH, Aban M, Barr IG, Petrovsky N. Human Phase 1 trial of low-dose inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine formulated with Advax™ delta inulin adjuvant. Vaccine. 2016 Jul 19;34(33):3780-6. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.05.071. Epub 2016 Jun 21.PMID: 27342914

Hess JA, Zhan B, Torigian AR, Patton JB, Petrovsky N, Zhan T, Bottazzi ME, Hotez PJ, Klei TR, Lustigman S, Abraham D. The Immunomodulatory Role of Adjuvants in Vaccines Formulated with the Recombinant Antigens Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2 against Onchocerca volvulus in Mice. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 Jul 7;10(7):e0004797. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004797. eCollection 2016 Jul. PMID: 27387453

Davtyan H, Zagorski K, Rajapaksha H, Hovakimyan A, Davtyan A, Petrushina I, Kazarian K, Cribbs DH, Petrovsky N, Agadjanyan MG, Ghochikyan A. Alzheimer's disease Advax(CpG)- adjuvanted MultiTEP-based dual and single vaccines induce high-titer antibodies against various forms of tau and Aβ pathological molecules. Sci Rep. 2016 Jul 1;6:28912. doi: 10.1038/srep28912.PMID:27363809

Wong TM, Petrovsky N, Bissel SJ, Wiley CA, Ross TM. Delta inulin-derived adjuvants that elicit Th1 phenotype following vaccination reduces respiratory syncytial virus lung titers without a reduction in lung immunopathology. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2016 May 24:1-10. PMID:27215855

Hayashi M, Aoshi T, Haseda Y, Kobiyama K, Wijaya E, Nakatsu N, Igarashi Y, Standley DM, Yamada H, Honda-Okubo Y, Hara H, Saito T, Takai T, Coban C, Petrovsky N, Ishii KJ. Advax, a Delta Inulin Microparticle, Potentiates In-built Adjuvant Property of Co-administered Vaccines. EBioMedicine. 2017 Feb;15:127-136. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.11.015.

Rajapaksha H, Bhatia H, Wegener K, Petrovsky N, Bruning JB. X-ray crystal structure of rivoglitazone bound to PPARγ and PPAR subtype selectivity of TZDs. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2017 May 9. pii: S0304-4165(17)30160-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2017.05.008. PMID 28499821

Honda-Okubo Y, Rajapaksha H, Sajkov D, Gordon D, Cox MM, Petrovsky N. Panblok-H1+advax H1N1/2009pdm vaccine: Insights into rapid development of an delta inulin adjuvanted recombinant pandemic influenza vaccine. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017 Feb 14:1-11. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2017.1279765. PMID:28301280

Counoupas C, Pinto R, Nagalingam G, Britton WJ, Petrovsky N, Triccas JA. Delta inulin-based adjuvants promote the generation of polyfunctional CD4+ T cell responses and protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 17;7(1):8582. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-09119-y. PMID:28819247

Menon V, Ayala VI, Rangaswamy SP, Kalisz I, Whitney S, Galmin L, Ashraf A, LaBranche C, Montefiori D, Petrovsky N, Kalyanaraman VS, Pal R.J. DNA prime/protein boost vaccination elicits robust humoral response in rhesus macaques using oligomeric simian immunodeficiency virus envelope and Advax delta inulin adjuvant. J Gen Virol. 2017 Aug;98(8):2143-2155. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.000863. Epub 2017 Jul 31. PMID:28758637

Wang L, Barclay T, Song Y, Joyce P, Sakala IG, Petrovsky N*, Garg S*. Investigation of the biodistribution, breakdown and excretion of delta inulin adjuvant. Vaccine. 2017 Aug 3;35(34):4382-4388. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.06.045. Epub 2017 Jul 1. PMID:28676380.

O'Meara CP, Armitage CW, Andrew DW, Kollipara A, Lycke NY, Potter AA, Gerdts V, Petrovsky N, Beagley KW. Multistage vaccines containing outer membrane, type III secretion system and inclusion membrane proteins protects against a Chlamydia genital tract infection and pathology.Vaccine. 2017 Jul 5;35(31):3883-3888. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.05.063. Epub 2017 Jun 8. PMID: 28602608

Mailybayeva A, Yespembetov B, Ryskeldinova S, Zinina N, Sansyzbay A, Renukaradhya GJ, Petrovsky N, Tabynov K. Improved influenza viral vector based Brucella abortus vaccine induces robust B and T-cell responses and protection against Brucella melitensis infection in pregnant sheep and goats. PLoS One. 2017 Oct 12;12(10):e0186484. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0186484. eCollection 2017.PMID: 29023541

De Paula Oliveira Santos B, Trentini MM, Machado RB, Rúbia Nunes Celes M, Kipnis A, Petrovsky N, Junqueira-Kipnis AP. Advax4 delta inulin combination adjuvant together with ECMX, a fusion construct of three protective mTB antigens, induces a potent Th1 immune response and protects mice against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017 Sep 22:0. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2017.1368598. PMID:28937879


Papte. S, Petrovsky N. Biological effects of excipients, In Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients, Pharmaceutical Press.
 Royal Pharmaceutical Society, 2019

Varun Khanna, Shoba Ranganathan and Nikolai Petrovsky Rational Structure-Based Drug Design. In: Ranganathan, S., Nakai, K., Schönbach C. and Gribskov, M. (eds.), Encyclopedia of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, vol. 2, pp. 585–600. (2019) Oxford: Elsevier

Computational repurposing of drugs and natural products against SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) as putative COVID-19 therapies. Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, accepted.


Vaxine has developed a range of vaccine adjuvant technologies that are protected by international patents. It also has rights to international patents protecting its universal influenza vaccine technology. Additional patents are being sought to cover Vaxine novel immuno-modulators and cancer therapies.